Dr. Narendra Dabholkar


Prabhakar Nanawaty

Suman Oak

How to Understand Evolution

All religions consistently attack evolution theory. Many theologists struggle to disprove evolution happenings. There are creationists and intelligent design propagandists who put all their effort to weaken evolution theory. Some fundamentalists approached court of law to teach oppose evolution theory in educational institutions and to retain creation holy myths.

Poor fellows, they all faced miserable failures. Yet they strive to sustain their make belief stories in the name of god, religion, and revelations. They wish to do business with the weakness of human beings. In this process they spread several false things about evolution.

  1. The major false propaganda is that humans came from apes and so why not apes evolve into humans?

This is nonsensical propaganda in a very unscientific way. Humans did not evolve from apes. Humans and apes are similarities in evolution. Both came from common ancestors in the past. Home banilis, Homo neanderthalensis, Home erectus were like human like species that evolved and extinct in the past. In that long process humans remained.

  1. Another false propaganda is about the gaps in fossils. If evolution is true how can the gaps are explained?

But they ignored about intermediate fossils that were discovered. This was proved in birds, dinosaurs, and therapsids. Between reptiles and mammals therapsids were found. Similarly in the evolution several intermediate fossils were found. That was conclusively established in human evolution. Before hominids branched off at least 12 stages of fossils were discovered. Paleontologists found with much difficulty all such intermediate stages. Normally it is difficult to have a fossil of dead animal. Unless it is saved from scavenger, the traces disappear. Same is case with plant. It is lucky some such were found.

  1. There are no arguments for creationists and hence they create all hurdles in the scientific discoveries. One such query is: Why fossil record is not showing gradual change if at all evolution is gradual?

In the stable state many fossils are left. In the evolution one species changes to another rapidly from geological point of view.. In scientific language it is called punctuated equilibrium. During the process one species breaks away and separated from its ancestors It is called little founder. Such small group transforms very quickly. The fossils from such rapid change may be difficult to trace. But the new changed species would retain the phenotype that can be observed. This punctuation is recorded and there is ample proof for that.

  1. Creationists would never stop to put hurdles. They turn to another question: Who has seen evolution?

In the evolutionary scientific evidence not one but many branches of science are deeply involved. The evidence gathered by various branches converged to establish the evolution conclusively. These scientific branches are: Genetics, Biology, anatomy, physiology, zoology, botany, molecular biology, paleontology, geography and several others. The conclusive evidence for evolution emerged from fossils which converge. It is not single fossil study. Of late the special study of virus, bacteria gave lot of scope how evolution happens. Environmental pressures are changing organisms which have short reproductive cycles.

  1. In modern evolutionary conclusive proofs NATURAL SELECTION has become the key word. It should not be mistaken as chance or even random. In the evolutionary process natural selection eliminates the mistakes but sustains the gains. Behind evolution there is cumulative selection is clear.
  1. Creationists produces bulk of books against evolution and in that laborious effort they site human eye as typical example  for intelligent design . There also they failed. Any student who simple studies the inside of eye will clearly understand that it is any thing but intelligent. The light that received by the eye will not see in straightforward way. The photons  have to go  through cornea and then through lens, then through aqueous fluid, blood vessels, ganglion cells, amacrine cells-both horizontal and bipolar. Then they reach the light sensitive rods and cones which convert into neural impulse. After that they are sent to visual cortex which lies at the back of the brain. There the process occurs into meaningful patterns. No intelligent designer will create eye in such topsy-turvey structure. Natural selection explained how the whole process evolved with the available material. That is the process the eye evolved in the long time.
  1. Then comes the weakest attack from creationists that it is only theory and not fact. Perhaps they do not know that in scientific method how theory is established .The theory is tested and proved based on the hypothesis. That is common thing in all branched of science. In the courts of law also the creationists could establish their view point on this point. Evolution is natural law with explanation and testable which is conclusive. .If any evidence goes contrary evolutionists are willing to abide by it but no such thing occurred so far.
  1. Evolution as branch of science is self corrective. Mistakes are taken and when proofs are given, the theory once again establishes it self. There are many such self corrections done by evolutionists in the process. Creationists can only throw stones but never contributes to the growth of human improvement.
  1. There are few who point out that second law thermodynamics is against evolution., The forgot that it is only applicable for closed systems and not to the universe. Hence their failure is once again proved
  1. The last lame theory developed by creationists is that science cannot establish for ethics, morality and hence there is need for god, creator etc. Here also they failed. Morality is evolved inherently among species and highly developed among humans.  Human is essentially moral which emerged from evolution. What the creationists claim is only God fearing morality which is not human.

Richard Dawkins called the evolution as GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH.

Dr. Narisetti Innaiah

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